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Troubleshooting email delivery failure

Knowledge Article Number 000212858
Failures of email delivery from the Salesforce application to contacts, leads, users or other recipients can be investigated easily using the email logs in salesforce.  

Resolution Navigate to Setup | Administration Setup | Monitoring | Email log files or Setup | Administration Setup | Monitor | Logs l Email log files (in advance interface) and run email logs and download the log file.

Check the Delivery Stage column for any errors incurred during the attempted delivery of the emails to the users MTA (Mail transfer agent).  Successful delivery is noted by a "D" in the Mail Event column. Failures are noted  by a "P" permanent (mail is bounced to the sender immediately) or  "T" transient (mail is attempted to be delivered to the recipient for up to 24 hours before it bounces back to the sender) in the Mail Event column.

For a single mail you could see more than one line item with a  "D" in the Mail Event column. This is because some e-mails traverse more than one Salesforce MTA before being delivered to the final recipient.  Note also mail that is CCed to a recipient will have its own line item in the logs.

A common error seen in the email logs is "no MXs for this domain could be reached at this time" which would indicate that the Salesforce MTA cannot resolve the recipients domain correctly or more commonly mail attempted to be delivered to the recipients MTA is being blocked on the recipients end of the connection.

See also for reference:
Viewing Email Logs
Mail None Delivery (NDR) codes

How do MX records work with email delivery?

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