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How to resolve DUPLICATE_USERNAME error returned while performing a deployment

Knowledge Article Number 000182266
Description I am performing a deployment using a change set and am getting the below error:

System.DmlException: Insert failed. First exception on row 0; first error: DUPLICATE_USERNAME, Duplicate Username.<br>Another user has already selected this username.<br>Please select another.: [Username]"Failure Stack Trace: "Class.DuplicationxxTest.DeDuplication: line x, column 1" 

How can I fix this issue?
Resolution Usernames are shared across instances, but not across environments (production/sandbox). I.e. if a user account in a sandbox instance has username = a@b.c, this username cannot be used in any other sandbox instance (CS*), but it can be used in production instances (NA*, EU*, AP*)

Uniqueness is enforced during deployments when tests are run, so an insert call will fail if the username is already registered in another org in the same environment (production or sandbox). The resolution for this is to use a guaranteed unique username for tests. We recommend generating globally unique usernames, e.g. org Id + timestamp + random value, as the below code snippet shows:
 
public static User createTestUser(Id roleId, Id profID, String fName, String lName) {
    String orgId = UserInfo.getOrganizationId();
    String dateString = String.valueof(Datetime.now()).replace(' ','').replace(':','').replace('-','');
    Integer randomInt = Integer.valueOf(math.rint(math.random()*1000000));
    String uniqueName = orgId + dateString + randomInt;
    User tuser = new User(  firstname = fName,
                            lastName = lName,
                            email = uniqueName + '@test' + orgId + '.org',
                            Username = uniqueName + '@test' + orgId + '.org',
                            EmailEncodingKey = 'ISO-8859-1',
                            Alias = uniqueName.substring(18, 23),
                            TimeZoneSidKey = 'America/Los_Angeles',
                            LocaleSidKey = 'en_US',
                            LanguageLocaleKey = 'en_US',
                            ProfileId = profId,
                            UserRoleId = roleId);
    return tuser;
}




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